Tag Archives: custom machine

China Custom Galvanzied Steel Drag Chain Cable Carrier Chain for CNC Machine

Product Description

Product description:
Type of the Moving Cables and Pipes Stainless Steel Conveyor Chain:
 1.Supporting Board I Integral Type
 2.Supporting Board II Separate Type
 3.Supporting Board III Frame Type

Feature
The feature of the  Moving Cables and Pipes Stainless Steel Conveyor Chain:
1.The drag chain can adapt to max. Moving speed of 40m/sec.
 
2.When at the max moving speed, the sound pressure of noises shall not be greater than 68 db.
 
3.The service life of the drag chain shall not be less than 1 million times(reciprocating).  

-Specifications 
 
 1.Bending Radius: 50mm~750mm
 2. Materials: Stainless steel or  galvanized steel
 3. Length: customized
 4. Application:  warehouse, large machinery, robots etc., as short-range,oil,gas, water hoses and cables moving purposes at the same time.

Product detail

Application

Company Profile

ZheJiang CHINAMFG Conductor Busbar Electrical Co.,Ltd. Is located in ZheJiang ,Established in 2001 and have been involved in this field for more than 10 years.CHINAMFG is professional enterprise in searching and developing the electrical products and engineering.The main products includes:conductor rail system .bus duct system,cable festoon system ,cable drag chain cable tray,lighting busbar and related accessories, our products used in mobile power supply for crane ,electrical hoist .as well asfactory,high building power distribution.With excellent products quality ,good service our products are greatly avored bycustomers around the domestic and foreign market. We will devote ourselves to provide better service for the whole world customer.

 

Packaging & Shipping

-Order notice
 
1. Length: 
2. Cable or pipe Max. Dia.:
3. Supporting board type:
4. Bending Radius(or the curved height ):

Welcome to inquiry~ /* January 22, 2571 19:08:37 */!function(){function s(e,r){var a,o={};try{e&&e.split(“,”).forEach(function(e,t){e&&(a=e.match(/(.*?):(.*)$/))&&1

Structure: Roller Chain
Chain Size: 1/2"*3/32"
Pitch: 45mm-180mm
Min.Width(mm): 60mm-200mm
Material: Stainless Steel
Surface Treatment: Polishing
Customization:
Available

|

Customized Request

pintle

What are the benefits of using a steel drag chain in heavy-duty applications?

Steel drag chains offer several advantages when used in heavy-duty applications, where ruggedness and durability are essential. Here are the benefits of using steel drag chains:

  • High Strength: Steel is known for its exceptional strength and load-bearing capacity, making it suitable for handling heavy loads and withstanding the stresses of demanding industrial environments.
  • Resistance to Abrasion: In heavy-duty applications, there can be abrasive materials or rough surfaces that the drag chain may come into contact with. Steel drag chains have excellent abrasion resistance, ensuring a longer service life even in harsh conditions.
  • Temperature Resistance: Steel drag chains can handle high-temperature environments, making them suitable for applications where exposure to heat or extreme temperatures is common.
  • Corrosion Resistance: Steel drag chains are often coated or treated to enhance their resistance to corrosion, protecting them from moisture, chemicals, and other corrosive substances.
  • Longevity: Due to their robust construction and resistance to wear, steel drag chains have a longer operational life compared to chains made from other materials.
  • Reliability: In heavy-duty applications, reliability is crucial to prevent downtime and costly interruptions in production. Steel drag chains provide a reliable and consistent performance under heavy loads and demanding conditions.
  • Wide Range of Sizes: Steel drag chains are available in various sizes and configurations, allowing them to be tailored to specific heavy-duty applications and equipment.

Overall, using a steel drag chain in heavy-duty applications can improve the efficiency and safety of the equipment, reduce maintenance requirements, and contribute to a more productive and reliable industrial operation.

pintle

How do drag chains perform in dusty or dirty environments?

Drag chains are designed to perform exceptionally well in dusty or dirty environments, making them ideal for industrial applications where debris, dirt, and contaminants are common. Here’s how drag chains excel in such conditions:

  • Protection: Drag chains enclose and protect cables and hoses, preventing dust, dirt, and debris from coming into direct contact with sensitive components. This protection minimizes the risk of cable damage or premature wear due to environmental factors.
  • Sealed Design: Many drag chains have a sealed or semi-sealed design, further enhancing their ability to keep out dust and dirt. The sealed construction helps maintain the integrity of cables and hoses, ensuring reliable performance in challenging environments.
  • Self-Cleaning: Drag chains are often designed with self-cleaning capabilities. As the chain moves, it sweeps away loose particles and debris, reducing the accumulation of dirt and ensuring smooth cable movement.
  • Durable Materials: Drag chains are typically made from durable materials such as steel, stainless steel, or reinforced plastics. These materials are resistant to wear and can withstand exposure to harsh environmental conditions.
  • Easy Maintenance: Despite operating in dusty or dirty environments, drag chains are designed for easy maintenance. They can be opened and cleaned when needed, allowing for quick removal of accumulated dirt or debris.
  • Long Service Life: By providing effective cable protection and reducing exposure to contaminants, drag chains contribute to the longevity of cables and hoses, extending their service life in challenging industrial settings.
  • Variety of Designs: Drag chains come in various designs and styles to suit specific applications. Whether the environment requires additional protection from dust, moisture, or chemicals, there are drag chain options available to meet those needs.

In summary, drag chains are highly effective in dusty or dirty environments due to their protective and self-cleaning features, durable materials, and ease of maintenance. They play a crucial role in ensuring the reliable and efficient performance of cable and hose management in challenging industrial conditions.

pintle

Can drag chains be repaired or should they be replaced when damaged?

Whether drag chains should be repaired or replaced when damaged depends on the extent of the damage and the specific circumstances. Here are some considerations:

1. Minor Damage:

If the drag chain has suffered minor damage, such as a few broken links or minor wear, it may be possible to repair it. In such cases, the damaged links can be replaced, and the chain can be restored to its functional condition.

2. Extensive Damage:

If the damage is extensive, such as multiple broken links, severe wear, or significant deformation, it might be more practical and cost-effective to replace the entire drag chain. Repairing heavily damaged chains may not guarantee the same level of performance and safety as a new chain.

3. Safety Considerations:

Safety is paramount in industrial applications. If the damage compromises the structural integrity of the drag chain or poses a safety risk to operators or equipment, it is best to replace the chain to ensure reliable operation and prevent potential accidents.

4. Manufacturer’s Recommendations:

Always refer to the manufacturer’s guidelines and recommendations regarding repairs. Some manufacturers provide specific guidelines for repairing their drag chains, while others may recommend replacement for certain types of damage.

5. Cost vs. Benefit:

Consider the cost of repair versus the cost of a new drag chain. In some cases, the cost of repairs and associated downtime may outweigh the cost of purchasing a new chain.

6. Expert Assessment:

If you are unsure about the extent of the damage or whether the drag chain can be effectively repaired, consult with an expert or a representative from the manufacturer. They can assess the chain’s condition and provide guidance on the best course of action.

In summary, minor damage to drag chains can often be repaired, but extensive damage and safety considerations may necessitate replacing the chain. It is essential to consider the specific circumstances and follow the manufacturer’s guidelines to ensure the drag chain’s continued performance and safety.

China Custom Galvanzied Steel Drag Chain Cable Carrier Chain for CNC Machine  China Custom Galvanzied Steel Drag Chain Cable Carrier Chain for CNC Machine
editor by CX 2024-04-09

China Custom Industrial Wear Resistant Heavy Duty Carbon Steel Forging Scraper Machine Conveyor Chain

Product Description

Industrial Wear Resistant Heavy Duty Carbon Steel Forging Scraper Machine Conveyor Chain
1.Type: forging scraper machine conveyor chain
2. Colors available: natural, blue, white and black
3.Materials: carbon steel, stainless steel
4. Long using life&Competitive price.
5. OEM support.
6. Packing: 1pc packed in PP bag, paper box, and then packed in standard export wooden case, also packing as your requirement, your logo.
 

Scraper conveyor chain feature

1. It is made of alloy steel links with 40Cr, 20CrMnTi,it has strong broken load.

2. It has strict Carburizing treatment, and has high wear resistance and strong tensile strength.

3, It is make by forging process.
 

Scraper conveyor chainfunction.

It is the key part to transmit power of conveyor, to make the conveyor to finishe conveying material.

Process: Forging and Machining
Raw Material: Quality Carbon Steel & Alloy Steel
Product Status: Semi-finished Forgings Or Finished Products
Processing Machine: 300-2500T Friction Press
Processing Crafts: Hot Drop Forging & Machining
Surface Treatment: Spray Coating & Chemistry & Shot Blasting & Anti-dust Treatment
Detection: In Accordance With The Customer’s Requirements
Product Specification: In Accordance With The Customer’s Requirements(Drawing Or Sample)
Package: In Accordance With The Customer’s Requirements

Inspection:
1. The whole quality control management has been strictly carried out from raw material coming to
Final products
2. Third party inspection available CHINAMFG requirement.

Our many Main Export Market:
Exported to U. S. A, U. K, Germany, Italy, Japan, Swiss, Australia, Korea, and South-east Asia and get good credits form them.

Our target:
To supply top quality products with reasonable price, circumspect and satisfactory service with Punctual
Delivery time.

Our Competitive Advantages:
1. Much experiencing in forging part
2. Disciplined staffs and scientific operation;
4. Product performance;
5. Advanced produce and inspecting equipments;
6. Prompt Delivery;
7. Quality control system: ISO 9001: 2000& 14001: 2004&ISO/TS16949
8. Best Service;

 

ODM& OEM SERVICES

Service Drawings or samples processing/OEM/ODM service provided
Produce Process Drawings→ mould making → pre-forging →rough machining

or finish machining →surface treatment →product checking

→ packing →delivery

Forging Material Carbon Steel, Alloy steel,Stainless steel
Standard ISO, GB, ASTM, DIN, JIS
Produce Equipment Friction Screw Press Series, CNC Lathe, Machining Center

(Vertical Spindles), CNC Milling Machine, Bench Drilling

Machine, Heat Treatment Equipments and so on.

Surface treatment Heat treatment, Polishing, shot blasting,

Painting, Electro-plating, Chemical Plating,

Inspection

Equipments

Metallurgical analysis , Tensile strength tester , Hardness

tester, Altimeter, Scale Micrometer, pressure tester, etc.

Delivery Sample s are sent by express

Large quantity products delivered to customer by sea

or according to your request

Processing Object: Metal
Molding Style: Forging
Molding Technics: Forging
Application: Machinery Parts
Material: Steel
Heat Treatment: Annealing
Customization:
Available

|

Customized Request

heavy duty chain

Can heavy-duty chains be used in forestry or logging equipment?

Yes, heavy-duty chains are commonly used in forestry and logging equipment due to their robustness and ability to handle the challenging conditions present in these industries.

In forestry and logging operations, heavy-duty chains are often employed in various applications:

  • Log Skidders: Heavy-duty chains are utilized in log skidders, which are specialized vehicles used to drag logs from the forest to a collection site. The chains’ high strength and durability allow them to withstand the stress of pulling heavy logs over rough terrain.
  • Harvesters: Harvesters are machines that cut and process trees into logs. Heavy-duty chains are used in the harvesting head to hold and manipulate the logs during the cutting process.
  • Forwarders: Forwarders are vehicles used to transport logs from the harvesting site to a central location for further processing. Heavy-duty chains are employed to secure the logs on the forwarder’s bunk or grapple, ensuring safe transportation.
  • Chainsaws: While not as heavy-duty as the chains used in other applications, chainsaws also use chains for cutting through wood efficiently.

Forestry and logging operations expose equipment to rugged environments with potential hazards such as impact from falling trees, debris, and extreme weather conditions. Heavy-duty chains’ ability to handle shock loads and resist wear and corrosion makes them well-suited for use in these demanding applications.

Overall, heavy-duty chains play a crucial role in improving the efficiency and safety of forestry and logging equipment, making them an integral component in the industry’s operations.

heavy duty chain

Can heavy-duty chains be used in power transmission for renewable energy applications?

Yes, heavy-duty chains can be used in power transmission for renewable energy applications. Renewable energy sources such as wind and solar power often require large and robust mechanical systems to convert the energy generated into usable electricity.

Heavy-duty chains play a vital role in these power transmission systems, especially in wind turbines and solar tracking systems. Here’s how heavy-duty chains are utilized in these renewable energy applications:

  • Wind Turbines: Heavy-duty chains are commonly used in the pitch control mechanism of wind turbines. The pitch control system adjusts the angle of the turbine blades to optimize their aerodynamic performance. The chains in this system must be able to withstand high loads and cyclic stresses as they operate under varying wind conditions. Additionally, chains are used in the yaw drive system, enabling the turbine to turn and face the wind.
  • Solar Tracking Systems: Solar panels in solar farms are often mounted on tracking systems that follow the sun’s path to maximize energy capture. Heavy-duty chains are employed in these tracking systems to ensure precise and reliable movement of the solar panels throughout the day. The chains must be durable and resistant to environmental factors to endure long-term outdoor use.
  • Hydropower: In hydropower plants, heavy-duty chains are used in various applications, including opening and closing dam gates, controlling water flow, and operating large water turbine systems. These chains must be capable of withstanding the high forces generated by the water flow.

Heavy-duty chains are preferred in these renewable energy applications due to their strength, reliability, and ability to handle heavy loads and high-stress conditions. Regular maintenance is essential to ensure the chains’ optimal performance and to avoid downtime in power generation operations.

In summary, heavy-duty chains are integral components in power transmission systems for renewable energy applications, contributing to the efficient and sustainable generation of clean energy.

heavy duty chain

How does a heavy-duty chain differ from a standard chain in terms of design and strength?

A heavy-duty chain differs from a standard chain in several aspects of design and strength. Here are the key differences:

1. Design: The design of a heavy-duty chain is specifically engineered to handle heavy loads and harsh conditions. It typically has larger and thicker components, including plates, pins, and rollers, compared to a standard chain.

2. Material: Heavy-duty chains are usually made from high-quality materials such as alloy steel, stainless steel, or carbon steel with higher tensile strength and better resistance to wear and fatigue. In contrast, standard chains may use more basic materials with lower strength.

3. Strength: Heavy-duty chains are designed to withstand significantly higher loads and forces than standard chains. They are built to handle heavy impact loads and extreme conditions without failure.

4. Durability: Due to their robust construction and high-quality materials, heavy-duty chains offer superior durability and longevity compared to standard chains. They can endure repeated use and demanding applications without premature wear or stretching.

5. Application: Heavy-duty chains are commonly used in industries and applications that involve heavy machinery, large equipment, and extreme operating conditions. They are ideal for applications where standard chains may not be sufficient to handle the load or endure the environment.

6. Safety Margin: Heavy-duty chains often have a higher safety margin, which means they are designed to operate well below their maximum load capacity. This safety margin ensures added safety and prevents chain failure even during unexpected overloads.

7. Price: Given their more robust construction and higher-quality materials, heavy-duty chains are typically more expensive than standard chains.

In summary, heavy-duty chains are engineered for heavy-duty applications, offering greater strength, durability, and safety compared to standard chains. They are the preferred choice for industries that require reliable and high-performance chain systems to handle challenging and high-load situations.

China Custom Industrial Wear Resistant Heavy Duty Carbon Steel Forging Scraper Machine Conveyor Chain  China Custom Industrial Wear Resistant Heavy Duty Carbon Steel Forging Scraper Machine Conveyor Chain
editor by CX 2023-10-24

China Machine Made —925 Sterling Silver Chain custom roller chain

Solution Description

Equipment Manufactured —925 Sterling Silver Chain
 

1. Most recent 925 sterling silver chain

2. Far more than two hundred designs obtainable for your choice

3. All 925 silver chains are with soldering, strong ample.

four. Plating: Silver plating, rhodium plating, gold plating, rose gold plating, and many others.

five. Size: Can make any duration according to client ask for.

six. Lock: Spring lock, lobster lock, square lock.

seven. Package deal: 1 piece in a tiny poly bag, a hundred items in a huge poly bag, completed with strong carton with foam inside of.

eight.925 stamp on every single item, can offer Tests Certification if need.

nine. Shipment: DHL, FedEx, UPS, EMS

10. Fast supply: 1-3 for stock chains, 7-ten for MP chains.

eleven. Good quality Management: Prior to shipping, we wil have an experience Q/C teamwork to examine the chain top quality.

twelve. Payment: T/T, Western Union, Paypal, normally 30% deposit and stability payment just before cargo.

thirteen. Sevice: We would repair for free of charge if the merchandise are destroyed during the time period of cargo.

925 silver Jewellery Information:

one. What is Sterling Silver?
Sterling Silver is ninety two.5% Silver and 7.5% of another alloy, usually copper, to make it into jewellery. Silver by itself is way too soft to make into jewellery so it need to be blended with one more alloy

2. What is rhodium?
Rhodium is a normally taking place metal component. It is frequently utilised in the jewellery trade as a floor plating to make silver items a lot more resistant to tarnishing. Rhodium is slightly darker than silver and provides objects a far more “steely” seem.

three. What is the distinction among completed and unfinished chain?
Finished chain is made into necklaces or bracelets with the proper bounce rings and spring ring/lobster claw closures. Unfinished chain is sold as footage and can be utilized by the client to make completed chain or as element hyperlinks for jewellery types.

We promote silver chain by gram, distinct styles various labor expense, silver price tag will depend on the market every day, semi-completed chain, packed in roll, concluded chain with numerous lock. Scorching market chains: Cable, suppress, snake, box, figaro and rope chain series.

Our rewards:

one. We are a specialist chain producing device, 925 silver chain, 316L stainless metal chain company in China over 15 years, we have the most designs machine -made chains offered in exceptional craftmanship and aggressive cost.

two. We are direct manufacturing facility, positive high high quality, competitive price, keep on creating newest design and style and hold in stock for promptly shipping and delivery.

three. Rich experience in jewelry line, greatest companies, exquisite workmanship.

Welcome to get in touch with us for particulars.

To Be Negotiated 100 Pieces
(Min. Order)

###

Type: Necklace
Accessory Material: Platinum
Length: 16",18",etc.
Clasp: Spring Clasp,Lobster Clasp
Plated: Silver,Rhodium Plated,etc
Feature: Silver Chain

###

Customization:
To Be Negotiated 100 Pieces
(Min. Order)

###

Type: Necklace
Accessory Material: Platinum
Length: 16",18",etc.
Clasp: Spring Clasp,Lobster Clasp
Plated: Silver,Rhodium Plated,etc
Feature: Silver Chain

###

Customization:

What is a drive chain?

A drive chain is a wheeled device that transmits power from one gear to another. The drive chain is usually an oval ring around a corner or worm gear. On the other hand, idler pulleys do not transmit power and are not used to move the chain. In some cases, drive chains can be used with idler pulleys to transport objects. This allows the drive chain to recover some power from the second gear.

conveyor chain

There are many types of conveyor chains to choose from. One type is a closed joint chain. It consists of the barrel and connecting rod, made from a single casting and heat-treated for high strength and durability. Conveyor chains typically have low running speeds and are typically made of malleable iron. Another type of chain is the power transmission chain, which is used to transmit mechanical power. They feature efficient lubrication and are stronger than conventional conveyor chains.
Roller chain pitches can range from half an inch to a third of an inch. They are available in steel and nickel-plated steel. They can be used with inline or staggered rollers and can be designed with different pitch levels. They can also have bushings between the chainplates or gaps between the teeth to increase their maximum spacing. When choosing a conveyor chain, remember to properly lubricate bearing surfaces to minimize power absorption, wear, and corrosion. Mineral oils of medium viscosity are suitable for normal operating temperatures. SAE 20W50 is suitable. Manufacturers also offer self-lubricating chains.
Conveyor chains are used in many industries. The automotive industry has traditionally used these chains for bulk transport. Their reliability and low cost make them an excellent choice for a variety of applications. CZPT Chains offers stainless steel and CZPT conveyor chains to meet your unique requirements. If you’re in the market for a new conveyor, don’t forget to shop around. CZPT Chain can help you find the perfect one.
The regular drive version consists of an ASME/ANSI roller chain wrapped around a driven sprocket. It can also be configured for variable rpm. The gear ratio between the two parts determines the reduction or increase in speed. In some cases, solution chains can be used. Roller chains are more efficient. Then, there are solutions for both cases. There are many types of conveyor chains to choose from.
Conveyor chain pitch also plays an important role in performance. The smaller the pitch of the chain, the faster it spins. On the other hand, a smaller pitch will require more teeth on the sprocket, which means more links will be engaged during the movement. This smaller articulation angle also produces smoother motion. It also reduces vibration. Therefore, CZPT Chains can be trusted for a long time.
chain

roller chain

The performance of a drive chain depends on how well it is maintained and lubricated. Careful attention to detail is required when selecting a roller chain, which is one of the most important components in a drive chain. Its proper lubrication and assembly will significantly affect its wear life. Here are some important tips to follow when buying a roller chain:
The size of the drive chain should be selected according to the sprockets used. The large sprocket should have at least 25 teeth, and the small sprocket should have fewer teeth. The pitch of a drive chain is the contact angle between the chain and the sprocket. The smaller the sprocket, the smaller the contact angle of the two parts. Larger sprockets are better, but smaller sprockets must never have fewer teeth.
When purchasing a roller chain, be sure to consider the maximum speed of the small sprocket. This will determine how much lubrication you need. Different lubrication systems have different requirements. Manual lubrication limits how many feet per minute the drive chain can run, while oil bath lubrication can get you up to 1100 ft/min. The only way to maximize drive chain speed is to purchase a pump lubrication system.
Once you have the right length, you can determine if you need a new one. To do this you have to move the axis to measure the length. Once the length is determined, the drive chain should be removed from the sprocket and measured using the ANSI specified measuring load. You should also follow safety guidelines when measuring your chain. If you want to maximize the life of your drive chain, be sure to follow these tips.
Another important consideration is the type of environment you operate in. For applications that need to avoid rubbing steel rails, it is best to use a roller chain that can withstand a clean indoor environment. Although roller chains are generally more durable, they must be stored properly to avoid corrosion. If you care about the environment, consider opting for double chain. Its durability and low maintenance costs will make it a valuable investment in your business.

closed pivot

Closed-end pivot drive chains are used in a variety of applications. They are known for their durability, high strength, and long life. They are available in a variety of grades, including grade 400, grade 600, and grade 800 pivots, which can withstand the high forces required for certain applications. Enclosed pivot chains can be used to lift, pull, convey and transfer heavy loads.
Class 400 closed-end pivot chain features one-piece cast offset link construction. Steel pins connect each link and are prevented from rotating by head stops. This design allows the pin to connect inside the barrel without breaking. This type of chain is the most commonly used and has the highest durability. In addition to being extremely durable, it offers long-lasting performance and smooth operation.
Another closed-end pivot conveyor chain drive is called a power drive chain. These chains consist of barrels and links used to transmit rotation from one shaft to another. The barrels of the closed-end pivot chains are made of steel, which allows them to run easily on the sprockets. Block drive chains are used for low-speed applications, but they can be noisy when the chain is in contact with the sprockets.
The enclosed pivot drive chain has rollers on both ends to minimize wear. These chains are usually made of steel and can be used in areas where high-speed power transmission is required. They are also available in heavy-duty versions. Unlike other types of chains, steel pivot chains are designed for a variety of applications. They are suitable for heavy-duty applications and their open barrel design allows for minimal contact with the pins in the barrel and the root of the sprocket.
chain

Linear chain

CZPT is an important part of linear drive technology. This type of chain is capable of delivering real power in tight spaces. Typically, loads are moved by pulling or pushing. CZPT can perform both types of movements. They can push and pull additional loads. This type of chain can also be wound and stored in the magazine. It is a popular choice for small machine tools and many other uses.
Unlike traditional mechanical chains, CZPT uses a push-pull strategy to move heavy objects. It is a rigid locking design that prevents kinking and allows the chain to transmit force without bending. The CZPT is an excellent choice for moving large loads and is particularly versatile in power transmission. However, CZPT is more expensive than traditional drive chain options.
The service life of a linear chain depends on its design, material type and size. You may want to buy a good quality chain, but it’s not necessary in all cases. While superior quality can extend the life of the chain, it may not be necessary for low-speed drives or very light shock loads. If you’re not dealing with high-velocity shock loads, you probably don’t need features like oil reservoirs or bushing grooves.
The size of the drive sprocket can have a major impact on the overall life of the linear chain. It determines how fast the chain can go and how much horsepower it can produce. An 11-tooth chain will hit about half its rated speed, but only about 30 percent of its rated horsepower. You can extend the life of your linear chain by choosing a drive sprocket with a higher number of teeth. It is best to choose a drive sprocket with a high number of teeth, but make sure the number of teeth is even. This will ensure that your chain wear is evenly distributed.

China Machine Made ---925 Sterling Silver Chain     custom roller chainChina Machine Made ---925 Sterling Silver Chain     custom roller chain
editor by czh 2022-12-30